Periodontal Disease In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments


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Periodontal disease in dogs is an inflammation or infection that causes weakening or loss of support structures of the teeth. Gum disease is one of the most common medical problems dogs have. Over 80 percent of dogs show early stages of gum disease by the time they’re three years old.

Periodontal disease happens when food and bacteria build up along the gums and form plaque, which turns into calculus–also known as tartar. The calculus causes irritation and inflammation of the gums, which is known as gingivitis and is an early stage of periodontal disease.

Over time, calculus builds under the gums and causes them to separate from the teeth. Bacteria can grow in these spaces, and eventually the disease becomes irreversible, resulting in bone and tissue loss, and teeth end up falling out. This can lead to several more health problems and complications.

If you see the signs of periodontal disease, consult your veterinarian so they can form a proper treatment plan and advise you on how to maintain your dog’s oral health. Here’s what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for periodontal disease in dogs.

Symptoms Of Periodontal Disease In Dogs

The vet is using the tool for the treatment of gingivitis in the open mouth of the dog under anesthesia.

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Sometimes the symptoms of periodontal disease in dogs aren’t noticeable until gum disease progresses to a more advanced stage. That’s why you must regularly inspect your dog’s mouth for anything out of the ordinary.

Usually periodontal disease begins around one tooth and progresses from there. In stage 1 periodontal disease, dogs show signs of gingivitis, though teeth don’t separate from the gums during this stage.

As dogs progress to stage 2, 25 percent of the attachment between the affected teeth and gums will be lost. During stage 3 of periodontal disease, that can grow to 30 percent of attachment loss.

In stage 4, also known as advanced periodontal disease, more that 50 percent of the attachment between gums and teeth is lost, the gum tissue recedes, and the roots of the teeth may be exposed.

Here are some of the common signs of gum disease that may eventually lead to advanced periodontal disease if it goes without treatment:

  • Bleeding or red gums (or signs of blood on chew toys or in food and water bowls)
  • Signs of irritation in the mouth
  • Loss of appetite
  • Difficulty eating
  • Excessive drooling
  • Irritability
  • Loose teeth or, at advanced stages, teeth falling out
  • Bad breath

Causes Of Periodontal Disease In Dogs

A young Shorkie Dog (cross breed of a Yorkshire Terrier and Shih Tzu)chews on a red toy im the family home

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Gum disease that can lead to advanced periodontal disease in dogs is caused by a buildup of bacteria and food, which eventually becomes plaque. Plaque can combine with minerals and harden within two to three days to form calculus.

The dog’s immune system fights the bacterial buildup, which leads to inflammation. Calculus continues to build and pulls the gums away from the teeth, creating pockets where bacteria can grow. Abscesses start to form, tissue and bone deteriorate, and the teeth loosen.

Some dogs have a higher risk for developing advanced periodontal disease. Most cases of severe gum disease appear in older dogs. Dogs with compromised immune systems are more open to infection and less able to fight off bacteria, as well.

Diet also plays a role, as poor nutrition contributes to gum disease. Chewing behaviors and grooming habits can cause bacteria to build up, especially when dogs chew dirty toys or bones or if they lick themselves frequently.

The actual alignment of the teeth can be a problem, too, and small or toy breeds with crowded teeth are more susceptible to gum disease.

Finally, oral hygiene is a major factor. If you neglect your dog’s oral health, you can expect gum disease to develop at some point.

Treatments For Periodontal Disease In Dogs

Middle aged male and femal vets examining Golden retriever. Vet examining teeth at veterinarian's office.

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Treatment for periodontal disease in dogs begins with a thorough exam and x-rays to determine the stage and the extent of the damage. Your vet may give antibiotics to prevent bacteria from spreading during dental work. Treatment after that depends on the findings of the examination and the stage of the disease.

For stage 1 or 2 periodontal disease, a thorough cleaning above and below the gums can remove plaque, and a device called an ultrasonic scaler can remove calculus. The vet can polish teeth to fill in any crevices so bacteria cannot attach itself and form plaque.

In cases of stage 3 or 4 periodontal disease, your dog may still need a full cleaning. However, they’ll also need further treatment.

There are several types of procedures that may be used. Planing and subgingival curettage removes diseased teeth and tissue and smooths the surface of the root.

Another procedure, called a gingivectomy, can remove diseased gums. Periodontal surgery can open gums to exposed affected roots so they can be cleaned, treated with antibiotics, sealed, and provided with bone growth stimulants.

In some cases, extraction of loose, cracked, or dying teeth is necessary. The vet may prescribe pain medication and a soft food diet for three to four weeks after surgery.

The best way to fight periodontal disease is to prevent it with proper diet, being responsible about what you allow your dog to chew, and maintaining proper oral hygiene.

Different dogs have different requirements for dental care, so you should ask your vet about how often you should be brushing your dog’s teeth and how to do so properly.

Keep up with regular veterinary exams, and keep an eye out for the signs of gum disease. Periodontal disease can cause irreversible damage, but if you stop it early, you can minimize or prevent that damage.

How do you keep your dog’s teeth healthy? Do you check your pup’s mouth for signs of gum disease? Let us know in the comments below!

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